Microevolution is the study of evolutionary changes which involve the development of new characteristics within a species. Microevolution can happen over much shorter periods of time than it takes for a new species to form. Scientists have observed and recorded examples of microevolution. A good example is how evolution was studied in the Peppered Moth explained in detail in the relevant article.
Microevolution has also been observed in pine cones, together with the seed eating birds and squirrels that predate them. Scientists from Berkeley University studied the relationship between the trees and these seed eaters in the Rocky Mountains. (Presumably so-called creation scientists imagine they understand life better than real scientists at Berkeley University.)
- Where squirrels are the main seed eater pine cones are relatively heavy with more scales that makes it harder for squirrels to get to the seeds.
- Where crossbills are the main seed eater pine cones are relatively light with fewer scales but thicker scales that make it harder for crossbills to get to the seeds.
- Crossbills have also evolved different types of beaks adapted to the types of pine cones prevalent in their area.
These are just two examples that this author happens to know.